Education improvement is a complex and demanding enterprise without simple answers. Our goal is to help funders and project leaders improve their thinking, their investment strategies, their program designs, and their implementations—all in service of optimizing the contributions made by the investment. In our studies, we do not focus wholly on distal outcomes, but rather, we also study the realities of implementation. We help people interrogate their theories of action, and we groundtruth those theories by documenting what actually happens in field contexts. Drawing from our experience studying hundreds of education projects, we bring the lens of educational connoisseurship to our analyses of data.